The authors attached calmodulin to the ends of carbon nanotubes and
demonstrated that the binding capacity of calmodulin remained unchanged.
Protein attachment was done via a site-specific mutation of Tyr80 to
azido-tyrosine, which was then coupled to oxidized CNTs using a
Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation. Calmodulin binding was demonstrated using
an ECFP-calmodulin-binding peptide fusion protein. Treatment with
ECFP-CBP showed binding only on the ends of the CNTs.